What is a computer and types of computers, both these questions have come to your mind many times and you have also tried to know the answer to these? I know that you already know about it. But let me tell you that half the incomplete information is always harmful.
In this article, I will provide detailed information about the computer
I know that you must know the definition of a computer. But do you know the history of computers? Do you know who built a computer? And what types of computers are there? Did you know World’s First PC was made by which Company?
I will answer some similar questions in this article. If you will read this article completely, then you will not need to go to any other website and find it. So let’s start by giving you detailed information about computers. Want to Know About Android?
What is a computer?
A computer is an electronic device designed to perform the largest calculation. It works with more information. The word Computer is derived from the Latin word ‘compute’, which means ‘to calculate’.
Mainly it performs 3 types of work, in which input, processing, and output come. Inputs and outputs are used to collect and distribute data. Where you have to use a keyboard and mouse for input. For Output, you need to use an external devices such as a Monitor or Printer.
The father of computers as Charles Babbage, who is also given the title of ‘father of computers’. He was the first person who made the first computer. In the past, computers were designed as mechanical computers and were also known as analytical engines. In this, a punch card was used to take input.
Now it comes to processing. Processing mainly refers to the work going on during the middle of input and output. During this time the computer’s processor or Cpu takes the input, then processes that data in a program (set of instructions) and gives the final result. Which we call output.
The CPU of a computer is divided into two parts, which consists of two units, the first of which we call the control unit i.e. the ALU (arithmetic logic unit), and the registers we call the CPU basically.
Earlier computers used to have different parts but after 1970 they were designed in a single circuit and named as ‘microprocessors’.
What is the computer Full Form?
There is no English word named “Computer”. Actually, it is derived from the word “Compute”. Which means “calculating”.
In this way, the full form of computer is an electronic device that performs fast calculations. But you should keep in mind that in reality, this device has a long wide full-form. Which looks something like this.
- C = Common
- O = Operating
- M = Machine
- P = Purposely
- U = Used for
- T = Technological and
- E = Educational
- R = Research
On technology based, computer is divided into 3 categories.
- Analog Computers
- Digital computers
- Hybrid Computers
History of computer
The history of computers is divided into two parts, with the first part dating back to the 20th century. The second part is known as modern computer development.
In the twentieth century, computers were specifically called analog computers, in which mechanical and electrical models were designed to perform basic calculations. Its accuracy was not very good. Answers were always wrong when doing big calculations.
But the real change in the history of computers came when new options in computer hardware were being discovered. I mean vacuum tubes, transistors, and circuits. Let’s look at the 5 Generation of computers where you will get to know about the changes happening on the computer.
First Generation (1940–1956) vacuum tubes
The first generation computers used vacuum tubes. It also used a magnetic drum, which was used as the memory of the computer.
The biggest problem with these computers was that they used to generate a lot of heat while working, and the size of these computers was as big as the room. The main examples of these computers are ENIAC and UNIVAC.
Second generation (1956–1963) Transistor
In the second generation computer, it was seen that instead of vacuum tubes, the transistor was used. The transistor size was small.
They did not produce much heat. Used to use less electricity. And high-level language – Cobol and Fortran were used in these computers. The main example of these computers is IBM 7090.
Third generation (1964–1971) Integrated Circuits
Integrated Circuit was used in the Third Generation. It consists of a group of very small transistors, which are fitted as a semiconductor inside the Silicon Chip. More silicon chip means more power that means more power which means an increase in processing speed.
Processing capacity also increased in third-generation computers, which enabled it to connect more devices to it, which is why it started using magnetic tape for storage. Later peripheral devices such as monitors and keyboards were also added to the computer.
The IBM 5150, the first personal computer built by IBM, is a perfect example of this.
Fourth generation (1971-Present) Microprocessor
Computers were made even better in the fourth generation, where microprocessors were used instead of transistors and integrated circuits. This microprocessor used to be a group of thousands of integrated circuits that used very little energy. Their goal was to provide good processing speed at low energy consumption.
The use of micro-processors greatly increased the capacity of computers. And he was also able to do the biggest calculations in a short time. At that time, the microprocessor was introduced in many more devices.
MIDI is a very famous name among some of the most famous microprocessor names, it was used in musical instruments.
Fifth-generation computers have the excellent processing power, which can do maximum work in minimum time, that too in minimum energy consumption. Some examples of this are quantum computers, chemical computers, DNA computing, optical computers.
One special thing that I want to tell you is that the computers and laptops we use in our home and office today fall under the category of Fifth-generation computers.
Due to changing hardware usage across all generations, they have been divided into various categories. You can consider modern computers an ideal form of this, but it is expected somewhere.
Modern computers have given rise to many concepts such as multi-tasking, programming, cloud computing, storage server, artificial intelligence, deep learning, machine learning, and Big Data. If you want to keep all information about them, then you are connected to us.
How does Computer work?
There are three steps behind the working of the computer, the first step is input, second is for processing and third is for output.
Input (Data): Input takes information from the user, this information is taken by mouse or keyboard. It can be in any form of text, file, or picture. The computer uses it as information.
It is not that the same two devices come in the input device, the computer can take input from more devices like –
- Digital camera
- Digital video
- Graphics tablet
- Image scanner
- Overlay keyboard
- Real-time clock
Process: The data given in the input works under the program when it goes inside the computer. The program consists of Set of Instructions. According to which processing is done. CPU is the center of processing.
Output: Only the data processed during processing is Output. You will find this on the monitor. You can also do this from the computer memory. Some other device also appear in the output list such as
- PC speaker
- Sound card
- Video card
Inside A Computer
As of now, you must have known how computers are changing their identity in changing times. But do you know what you wrote about computers in childhood? I knew about computers in childhood that the CPU is the brain of the computer. Yes, now I will tell you more about this in detail.
It is a green plate, in which all the circuits are connected together. Your processor is installed on it only. The motherboard is the board where memory, connectors, hard drives, RAM, and Ethernet ports are installed. There are also ports to connect input and output devices.
Called the brain of the computer, this part is called the central processing unit. Whatever tasks or programs are run while working on the computer, they are directly accomplished by this. Use any AMD, Intel, or Qualcomm processor, it is installed here.
RAM (Random Access Memory)
RAM is required to run any program on the computer. It is a temporary memory, where the program is saved for some time. When you close the program, this memory is freed. No program is saved here.
If the computer suddenly shuts down, you will not get to see your work done again. It is measured in megabytes (MB) and gigabytes (GB). The more RAM, the faster the computer will work.
ROM (Read Only Memory)
It is the main memory of the computer, where files, programs, audio and video can be saved. The more ROM is done, the more files can be saved on the computer.
The operating system of the computer is also saved in this. This means that you do not need to install the operating system again and again. You only have to install the operating system in the ROM of the computer once, and the second time you use the computer, the files of the operating system will fetch themselves.
Expansion slots are provided in all computers, so more types of chips can be added to the computer. Some of the major chips that are mainly used are named after him.
- Video card
- Graphic Card
- Sound card
- Network card
- Bluetooth card
Types of Computer
A computer is used everywhere. It is used from any factory to school. If seen, in the world we are living today, even 1 car is not possible without a computer. Whether withdrawing from ATMs, or buying ration, a calculator to calculate, or a phone to call, is a living example of all computers.
Yes, the phone in your hand is also a mini-computer. That too changes the input from processing to output in the same way as PC does. I’m going to tell you about some types of computers.
The list includes computers that you and people like us use, such as desktops, laptops, tablets, and personal digital assistants. The smartphone is also a living example of this. But it is not like it is among us today.
The personal computer started with the launch of IBM 5150 in the market. In the early 1970s, IBM started contributing to making PC.
He built the first personal computer, using magnetic tape for computer storage. Its most important thing was that it was the most powerful computer of the time.
Minicomputers are those which are not made for general users. These big companies are prepared for the corporation. Which are made only for certain work. For example, such computers are also used to use large servers properly. Some of the main examples are this.
- Texas Instrument TI-990
Main Frame Computer
The most important thing about the mainframe computer is that it has 10 times more processing capacity than a personal computer. They are made only for certain work.
For example, computers built-in banking systems or used for any government project are shown as Main Frame Computer. Some examples are this.
- Fujitsu’s ICL VME
- Hitachi’s Z800
Supercomputer A computer that is designed with very high processing power is called a supercomputer. These computers are mainly used in satellites, which are computers to exchange sudden messages in the event of changing weather and temperature, similar photos when contacting some institutions when earthquakes and natural disasters occur.
Nuclear Weapon Testing Majesty Monitor is used that is also Super Computer. Apart from this, a list of some very popular supercomputers that you will definitely want to read.
- IBM’s Sequoia, in United States
- Fujitsu’s K Computer in Japan
- IBM’s Mira in United States
- IBM’s SuperMUC in Germany
- NUDT Tianhe-1A in China
What is the use of Computers?
The computer has become a very important link in the business, as it is used in every small and big work such as printing of bills, filing tax returns, collecting and making records.
Apart from this, the computer has also become an essential item for contract management. It is not possible to see a business burning without a computer.
We all know that a human cannot live without entertainment. Many TV shows, reality shows, movies, web series, and programs require computers to suit and edit.
Apart from this, computers and phones are very important for listening to songs, watching movies and playing games. Good computer graphics are also used for animation.
Computers are extensively used in government institutions for work such as word processing and data processing. Government offices use computers for data sharing with each other.
Distance learning and online classes are bringing a new type of technology into the life of today’s students. If seen, there is no need for them to go far to tuition. I can learn anything new from home.
Apart from this, all types of competitive exams have been shifted online, so that you can give your exam online without filling the paper. For security, it requires a user name and password.
Future Of Computer
Both the present and future of computers will have an impact on future generations. Especially in the field of computers, some new technologies such as Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning, Quantum Computing, Cloud computing, and Big data are taking steps towards making life easier for people.
I hope that you people have come to know what is computer and important information related to computer in this article. I always request you to share it with your friends, neighborhood, and family. With this, we can reach this important information to as many people as possible and also educate them.
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